2. 5,386,020, patented Jan. 31, 1995, entitled Multiply connected, three-dimensional nucleic acid structures; granted to Nadrian C. Seeman
3. 5,468,851, patented Nov. 21, 1995, entitled Construction of geometrical objects from polynucleotides; granted to Nadrian C. Seeman
Each of the three Seeman patent
describe an invention of one, two and three dimensional structures which
may be synthesized or modified
from polynucleotides. A core structure is expanded by cleavage of a loop with a restriction endonuclease and ligating another polynucleotide to the sticky ends so that the recognition site of the restriction enzyme is not reformed. This process is repeated as many times as necessary to synthesize any desired structure. The structures formed have a wide range of uses.
4. 5,804,373, patented Sep. 8, 1998, entitled Molecular automata utilizing single- or double-strand oligonucleotides; granted to Allan Lee Schweitzer, et al., This invention describes single- or double-strand oligonucleotides which are used to create a molecular automata. The preferred embodiment is a DNA Turing machine and a method of performing a transition in such a DNA Turing machine.
5. 5,843,661, patented Dec. 1, 1998, entitled Method for construction universal DNA based molecular turing machine; granted to Paul W. K. Rothemund, This invention discloses a novel method for constructing a Universal DNA based molecular Turing machine. Included in the invention is a method of operating the DNA based Turing machine of this invention.
6. 5,955,322, patented Sept. 21,
1999 entitled DNA-based computer; granted to Frank Guarnieri and
Bancroft,This invention relates to a DNA-based computer which is able to perm mathematical calculations such as addition as well as logical operations. It is based, at least in part, on the discovery that DNA molecules can be used to perform operations analogous to "bit-flipping" in computers. This capability, referred to herein as "molecular bit-flipping", derives from the complementary nature of DNA sequences. According to the present invention, input data are each represented by single-stranded DNA molecules. Complementary DNA sequences are incorporated such that input molecules, which bear a relationship defined by the operation, hybridize and permit one or more template DNA strands to serve as templates for primer extension. Primer extension, in turn, creates a result DNA molecule which represents the output data, and may be read using straightforward molecular biological techniques.
7. 6,124,444, patented Sept. 26, 2000 entitled DNA sequences useful for computation; granted to Eric Baum, This invention relates that in DNA computing there are DNA sequences which will substantially eliminate binding errors for molecules used in the computing processing. The elimination of binding errors will prevent extraction errors and binding during computations. A set of DNA sequences [Zj] and spacer sequence So must meet the criteria that there is no subsequence x of length k, which occurs in any two sequences [Zj] or subsequence x occurs in a sequence So Zj So and the complement x occurs in a sequence So Zj So, where Zj is at least of length k, so that it may be extracted.
8. 6,248,529 patented June 19, 2001
entitled Method of chemically assembling nano-scale devices granted to
Dennis Connolly . This invention describes nano-scale devices, including
electronic circuits, using DNA molecules as a support structure.
DNA binding proteins are used to mask regions of the DNA as a material,
such as a metal is coated onto the DNA. Included in the invention
are DNA based transistors, capacitors,
inductors and diodes. The invention also provides methods of making integrated circuits using DNA molecules as a support structure. Methods are also included for making DNA based transistors, capacitors, inductors and
9. 6,312,911 patented November 6,
2001 entitled DNA-Based Steganography granted to Frank Bancroft and Catherine
Clelland. This invention relates to a steganographic method for concealing
coded messages in DNA . The method of the invention comprises concealing
a DNA encoded message within a genomic DNA sample followed
by further concealment of the DNA sample to a microdot. The
invention further provides a method for the use of genomic steganography
to mark and authenticate objects of interest.
Any of the above patents can be obtained on the web at either IBM or US Patent Office